1    Criminality and Refugee Status:  International Instruments and Organisations from 1921 to the Present

       1.0.1    The Relationship between Articles 1A(2) and 1F(b)

       1.1       International Instruments and Organisations Prior to 1951

                   1.1.1    (1921-1946)
                   1.1.2    Constitution of the International Refugee Organisation 1946, Part II, paragraph 3
                   1.1.3    Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948, Article 14(2)
                   1.1.4    Statute of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
                               1949, Section 7(d)

       1.2       The Convention relating to the Status of Refugees 1951, Articles 1A(2) And 1F(b)

                          A Note on Treaty Interpretation
                          The Travaux Préparatoires
                          The Drafting Process

                    1.2.1    The Drafting History of Article 1A(2)
                    1.2.2    The Drafting History of Article 1F(b)

                           E/AC.7SR.166: Discussion before the Economic and Social Council
                           A/Conf.2/1: Paragraph 1E of the Draft Convention
                           A/Conf.2/SR.24: Discussion of the United Kingdom Amendment
                           A/Conf.2/SR.29: Further Discussion of the United Kingdom
                           Analysis of the Drafting History of Article 1F(b)

    1.3            Post Convention Developments

                    1.3.1    International Instruments
                    1.3.2    The UNHCR Handbook on Procedures and Criteria for Determining Refugee

    1.4            Conclusions regarding the Convention's Approach to Political Offenders

2    Political Offenses in the Law of Extradition 

       2.1        Subjective Political Motive
       2.2        Objective Political Act

                    2.2.1    Absolute Political Offenses
                    2.2.2    Relative Political Offenses

       2.3        Exceptions Relating to terrorism and International Crimes

       2.4        Fair Trial and Punishment

                    2.4.1    The Discrimination Clause

       2.5        Summary of Factors Distinguishing Political from Common Crime in the Law of Extradition

3    Refugee Claims Based on Commission of a Political Offense

       3.1    Relative Political Offenses

                3.1.1    Exclusion Based on Commission of a Serious Non-Political Crime
                3.1.2    Inclusion Based on Commission of a Relative Political Offense

       3.2    Absolute Political Offenses

                3.2.1    Dwomoh v Sava
                3.2.2    Antonio v Canada (MEI)

       3.3    Unfair Trial, Excessive Punishment and Extra-Judicial Harm

       3.4    Conclusions regarding Refugee Claims Based on the Commission of Acts of Political

4    Extending the Political Offense Analogy in Refugee Law

       4.1    Draft Evasion/Military Desertion

       4.2    Unlawful Departure/Stay Abroad

       4.3    Iran's 'Dress Code'

                4.3.1    Fatin v INS
                4.3.2    Fisher v INS
                4.3.3    Namitabar v Canada (MEI)

       4.4    China's One Child Family Policy: Forced Sterilization and Forced Abortion

                4.4.1    The US Case Law and Administrative Measures
                4.4.2    The Canadian Cases

       4.5    Conclusions regarding the Scope an Application of the Political Offender Analogy in Refugee

5    Conclusion:  Political Offenders and the 1951 Convention Refugee Definition


Table of Cases

Table of International Instruments