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Africa Watch, Land Mines in Angola, New York: Human Rights Watch, 1993.

Africa Watch, Angola: Civilians Devastated by 15-Year War, New York: Human Rights Watch, 1991.

Aleinikoff, Alexander, "The Meaning of 'Persecution' in United States Asylum Law" (1991) 3(1) International Journal of Refugee Law 1.

Andorka, I, "The Use of Direct Incentives and Disincentives and of the Indirect Social Economic Measures in Fertility Policy and Human Rights" in Population and Human Rights:  Proceedings of the Expert Group Meeting on Population and Human Rights, Geneva, 3-6 April 1989 (1990) 132.

Bassiouni, M Cherif, and Wise, Edward M, Aut Dedere Aut Judicare: The Duty to Extradite or Prosecute in International Law, Dordrecht; Boston: Martinus Nijhoff, 1995.

Blum, Carolyn P, "Political Assumptions in Asylum Decision-Making: The Example of Refugees from Armed Conflict" in Adelman, H, (ed), Refugee Policy: Canada and the United States, 282, Toronto: Centre for Refugee Studies, York University; Staten Island, New York: Centre for Migration Studies of New York, 1991

Brownlie, Ian, Principles of Public International Law, Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 4th ed, 1990.

Buergenthal, Thomas, "International Human Rights Law and Institutions: Accomplishments and Prospects" (1988) 63 Washing Law Review 1.

Canadian Immigration and Refugee Board, "Guidelines Issued by the Chairperson Pursuant to Section 65(3) of the Immigration Act: Women Refugee Claimants Fearing Gender-Related Persecution" (March 9, 1993).

Canadian Immigration and Refugee Board, Human Rights Briefs: Women in China (October 1993).

Compton, Daniel, "Asylum for Persecuted Social Groups: A Closed Door Left Slightly Ajar - Sanchez-Trujillo v INS 801 F.2d 1572 (9th Cir. 1986)" (1987) 62 Washington Law Review 913.

Devine, C and Rabgey, L, "Tibetan Women" (1995) 15(2&3) Canadian Woman Studies, 73.

Egan, Suzanne, The Right of Asylum and the Principle of Non-Refoulement in International Law: The Realities of State Practice at the Global Level, Thesis (LL.M) York University, 1990.

Evans, Alona E, "Reflections upon the Political Offence in International Practice" (1963) 57 American Journal of International Law 1.

Franskowska, Maria, "The Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties before United States Courts" (1988) 28 Virginia Journal of International Law 281.

Gilbert, Geoff, Aspects of Extradition Law, Dordrecht, the Netherlands; Boston: Martinus Nijhoff, 1991.

Goodwin-Gill, Guy S, The Refugee in International Law, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1983.

Grahl-Madsen, Atle, Territorial Asylum, Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiskell International; London; New York: Oceanna Publications, 1980.

Grahl-Madsen, Atle, The Status of Refugees in International Law, vol. 1, Leyden: A W Sijthoff, 1966.

Greatbach, Jaqueline, "The Gender Difference: Feminist Critiques of Refugee Discourse" (1989) 1(4) International Journal of Refugee Law 518.

Hartmann, Betsy, Reproductive Rights and Wrongs: The Global Politics of Population Control and Contraceptive Choice, New York: Harper & Row, 1987.

Hathaway, James C, The Law of Refugee Status, Toronto: Butterworths, 1991.

Hathaway, James C, "A Reconsideration of the Underlying Premise of Refugee Law" (1990) 31(1) Harvard International Law Journal 129.

Holborn, Louise, Refugees, A Problem of Our Time: The Work of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees 1951-1972, Metuchen, New Jersey: Scarecrow Press, 1975.

Hull, Elizabeth, Recent Population Policy in China (December 1991) Australian International Development Assistance Bureau, Sector Report 1991, No.4.

Human Rights Watch/Africa, Angola: Arms Trade and Violations of the Laws of War since the 1992 Elections, New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994.

Human Rights Watch/Americas, State of War: Political Violence and Counterinsurgency in Colombia, Washington DC: Human Rights Watch, 1993.

Human Rights Watch/Asia, "China; Keeping the Lid on Demands for Change" (June 1995) 7(7) 5-6.

Human Rights Watch/Asia, Dead Silence: The Legacy of Abuses in the Punjab, Washington DC: Human Rights Watch and Physicians for Human Rights, 1994.

Humphrey, John, The Revolution in the International Law of Human Rights (1975) 4 Human Rights 205.

Humphrey, John, "The International Bill of Rights: Scope and Implementation" (1976) 17 William & Mary Law Review 527.

Hyjek, Steven M, The Political Offense in International Law and Practice, Thesis (MA) American University, 1979.

International Refugee Organisation, Manual for Eligibility Officers (Imprimieres Populaires, Geneve).

Kurzban, Ira, Kurzban's Immigration Law Source Book, Washington DC: American Immigration Law Foundation, 4th ed, 1994.

La Forest, Anne W, La Forest's Extradition to and from Canada, Aurora, Ontario: Canada Law Book, 3rd ed, 1991.

Lawyers Committee for Human Rights, Criminal Justice with Chinese Characteristics: China's Criminal Process and Violations of Human Rights, New York, New York: Lawyers Committee for Human Rights, 1993.

Lilich, Richard, "Model American Convention", (1983) 77 American Journal of International Law 662.

Lin, S M, "China's One-Couple, One-Child Family Planning Policy as Grounds for Granting Asylum - Xin-Chang Zhang v Slattery, No.94 Civ 2119 (SNDY Aug. 5, 1994)" (1995) 36 Harvard International Law Journal 231.

Loescher, Gil, Beyond Charity: International Cooperation and the Global Refugee Crisis, New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Macklin, Audrey, "Refugee Women and the Imperative of Categories" (1995) 17 Human Rights Quarterly 213.

Martin, David, "The Refugee Concept: On Definitions, Politics, and the Careful Use of a Scarce Resource" in Adelman, H, (ed) Refugee Policy: Canada and the United States, 30, Toronto: Centre for Refugee Studies, York University; Staten Island, New York: Centre for Migration Studies of New York, 1991.

Memorandum from Edwin Meese III, Attorney General, to Alan C Nelson, Commissioner, US Immigration and Naturalization Service, P1 Ex A (Aug. 5, 1988).

Middle East Watch, Prison Conditions in Egypt, Washington DC: Human Rights Watch, 1992.

Middle East Watch, Guardians of Thought: Limits on Freedom of Expression in Iran, Washington DC: Human Rights Watch, 1993.

Moriarty, Tara A, "Guo v Carroll: Political Opinion, Persecution, and Coercive Population Control in the People's Republic of China" (1994) 8 Georgetown Immigration Law Journal 469.

Office for the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Handbook on Procedures for and Criterial for Determining Refugee Status (Reedited, Geneva, January 1992).

Raftopoulos, Evangelous, The Inadequacy of the Contractual Analogy in the Law of Treaties, Athens: Hellenic Institute of International and Foreign Law, 1990.

Rikhof, Joseph, "War Crimes, Crimes against Humanity and Immigration Law" 19 Immigration Law Reporter (2d) 18.

Rikhof, Joseph, "The Treatment of the Exclusion Clauses in Canadian Refugee Law" 24 Immigration Law Reporter (2d) 31.

Ris, Martin, "Treaty interpretation and ICJ Recourse to Travaux Preparatoires: Towards a Proposed Amendment of Articles 31 and 32 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties" (1991) 14 Boston College International and Comparative Law Review 111.

Robinson, Nehemiah, Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees: Its History, Contents and Interpretation, New York: Institute of Jewish Affairs, 1953.

Rogers, Rosemary, and Copeland, Emily, Forced Migration: Policy Issues in the Post-Cold War, Medford, Massachusetts: Tuft University, 1993.

Saario, V & Higgins Cass, Rosalyn, "The United Nations and the International Protection of Human Rights: A Legal Analysis" (1977) 7 California Western International Law Journal 591.

Salomon, Kim, Refugees in the Cold War: Toward a New International Regime in the Early Postwar Era, Lund, Sweden: Lund University Press, 1991.

Shearar, Ian A, Extradition in International Law, Manchester: Manchester University Press; Dobbs Ferry, New York: Oceanna Publications, 1971.

Sinclair, Ian, The Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, Manchester; Dover, New Hampshire: Manchester University Press, 1984.

Sinha, S Prakash, Asylum and International Law, The Hague; Martinus Nijhoff, 1971.

Sohn, Louis B, "The Human Rights Law of the Charter" (1977) 12 Texas International Law Journal 129.

Sohn, Louis B, "The New International Law: Protection of the Rights of Individuals Rather than States" (1982) 32 American University Law Review 1.

Stoessinger, John G, The Refugee and the World Community, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1956.

Takkenburg, Alex & Tahbaz Christopher C, (ed), The Collected Travaux Preparatoires of the 1951 Geneva Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Dutch Refugee Council under the Auspices of the European Legal Network on Asylum, 2nd ed, 1990.

Taulbee, James L, "Political Crimes, Human Rights and Contemporary International Practice" (1990) 4 Emory International Law Review 43.

Tobin Shiers, Elizabeth, "Coercive Population Control Policies: An Illustration of the Need for a Conscientious Objector Provision for Asylum Seekers" (1990) 30 Virginia Journal of International Law 1007.

US Committee for Refugees, The Long Road Home: Angola's Post-War Inheritance, Washington: US Committee for Refugees, 1991.

United States Department of State, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 1989, China, Washington DC: US Government Printing Office, 1990.

United States Immigration and Nationality Service, "Memorandum: Considerations for Asylum Officers Adjudicating Asylum Claims from Women" (May 26, 1995).

Van den Wijngaert, Christine, "Double Criminality as a Requirement to Jurisdiction" in Jareborg, N (ed), Double Criminality: Studies in International Criminal Law, 43, Uppsala: Iustus, 1989.

Van den Wijngaert, Christine, The Political Offence Exception to Extradition: The Delicate Problem of Balancing the Rights of the Individual and the International Public Order, Deventer, the Netherlands; Boston: Kluwer.

Von Sternberg, Mark R, "Political Asylum and the Law of Internal Armed Conflict: Refugee Status, Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Concerns" (1993) 5(2) International Journal of Refugee Law 153.

Zolan, Alexandra J, "The Effect of Islamization on the Legal and Social Status of Women in Iran" (1987) 7 Boston College Third World Law Journal 183.


Antonio v Canada (MEI) (1994) 85 FTR 241 (FCTD)
Chan v Canada (MEI) (1993) 20 Imm LR (2d) 181 (FCA)
Chan v Canada (MEI) File no. 23813, October 19, 1995 (SCC)
Chen Zhou Chai v Carroll 48 F 3d 1331 (4th Cir. March 6, 1995)
Cheung v Canada (MEI) [1993] 2 FC 314 (FCA)
Ciric v Canada [1994] 2 FC 65 (FCTD)
Dwomoh v Sava 696 F Supp 970, (SDNY 1988)
Eain v Wilkes 641 F 2d 504 (7th Cir. 1981)
Gil v Canada (MEI) [1995] 1 FC 508 (FCA)
Guo Chun Di v Carroll 842 F Supp 858, (ED Va January 14, 1994)
Fathi-Rad v Canada (Secretary of State) (1994) 77 FTR 41 (FCTD)
Fatin v INS 12 F 3d 1233 (3rd Cir. 1993)
Fisher v INS 37 F 3d 1371 (9th Cir. 1994)
Folkerts v State Secretary of Justice 74 Int'l L. Rep 472 (1978)
In re Doherty, 599 F Supp 270 (SDNY 1984)
In re Dwomoh, A26 805 882 (BIA 1988)
In re Ezeta 69 F 972 (ND Cal 1894)
In re Guo No A72 762 107 (BIA August 18, 1993)
In re Meunier [1894] 2 QB 415
In re Nappi 19 Int'l Law Reports 375 (1952)
INS v Cardoza-Fonseca 107 S Ct 1207 (1987)
INS v Cardoza-Fonseca 480 US 421 (1987)
Matter of Chang, Interim Decision 3107 (BIA May 12, 1989)
McMullen v INS 788 F 2d 591 (9th Cir. 1986)
Musial v Canada (MEI) [1982] 1 FC 290 (FCA)
Namitabar v Canada (MEI) (1993) 78 FTR 1 (FCTD)
Padilla v Canada (MEI) (1991) 160 NR 156; 13 Imm LR (2d) 1 (FCA)
Pen-Fei Si v Slattery No 93 Civ 8069, (SDNY October 13, 1993)
Pushpanathan v Canada [1993] FCJ No 870 (QL)
Quinn v Robinson 783 F 2d 776 (9th Cir. 1986)
R v Governor of Brixton Prison, Ex parte Schtraks [1964] AC 556
R v Governor of Pentonville Prison, Ex Parte Cheng [1973] AC 931
R v Govenor of Brixton Prison, ex parte Kolcyznski [1955] 1 QB 541
R v Immigration Appeal Authority, ex parte Mendi [1989] Imm AR 6 (CA)
Re Castioni [1891] 1 QB 149
Re Giovanni Gatti [1947] Ann Dig 145 (Case No. 70)
Re Kavic, Bjelanovic and Arsenijevic April 30, 1952, 78 ATF I p 54 (1952)
Re State of Wisconsin and Armstrong 10 CCC (2d) (F.Ct)
Refugee Appeal No. 29/91 Re SK (17 February 1992) (NZRSAA)
Refugee Appeal No. 1222/93 Re KN (5 August 1994) (NZRSAA)
Refugee Appeal No. 3/91 Re ZWD (20 October 1992) (NZRSAA)
Soering v United Kingdom (1989) 11 EHRR 439
Stevic v Sava 678 F 2d 401 (2nd Cir. 1982)
Somaghi v Minister of Immigration, Local Government and Ethnic Affairs (1991) 102 ALR 339 (Fed Ct. of Australia)
T v Secretary of State for the Home Department [1995] 1 WLR 545 (HL)
Valentin v Canada (MEI) [1991] 3 FC 390 (FCA)
Xin-Chang v Slattery 859 F. Supp. 708 (SDNY August 5, 1994)
Xiu Qin Chen v Slattery No. 94 Civ. 2568 (EDNY September 6, 1994)
Zolfagharkhani v Canada [1993] 3 FC 540 (FCA)


Arrangement with regard to the issue of certificates of identity to Russian refugees signed at Geneva, July 5, 1922, 13 LNTS 237.

Arrangement relating to the issue of identity certificates to Russian and Armenian refugees, supplementing and amending the previous arrangements dated July 5th, 1922, and May 31st, 1924 signed at Geneva May 12, 1926, 89 LNTS 47.

Arrangement relating to the legal status of Russian and Armenian refugees signed at Geneva, June 30, 1928, 89 LNTS 53.

Arrangement concerning the extension to other categories of refugees of certain measures taken in favour of Russian and Armenian refugees signed at Geneva, June 30, 1928, 89 LNTS 63.

Additional Protocol to the provisional arrangement and to the Convention signed at Geneva on July 4th, 1936 and February 10th, 1938, respectively, concerning the status of refugees coming from Germany opened for signature at Geneva, September 14th, 1939.

1975 Additional Protocol to the European Convention on Extradition, ETS No. 86.

Convention relating to the International Status of Refugees signed at Geneva, October 28th, 1933, 159 LNTS 199.

Convention Against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment UNGA Res 39/46, 10 December, 1984.

Convention concerning the status of refugees coming from Germany signed at Geneva, February 10th, 1938, 192 LNTS 59.

1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, entered into force April 22, 1954, 189 UNTS 2545.

Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, signed on December 9, 1948, 78 UNTS 277.

1977 Convention on the Suppression of Terrorism, ETS No. 90.

1957 European Convention on Extradition, ETS No. 24.

European Convention on Human Rights, ETS, No. 5.

Model American on the Prevention and Punishment of Certain Serious Forms of Violence Jeopardizing Fundamental Rights and Freedoms (see, Lillich, "Model American Convention", (1983) 77 American Journal of International Law 662).

1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees, entered into force 4 October, 1967, UNTS No. 8791, vol 601, p 267.